Description of Medical ServiceThe primary clinical purpose for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) is to determine the response to treatment and the risk of leukaemia relapse. The three main methodologies used to detect and quantify residual tumour cells not detectable by morphology are multi-parametric flow cytometry of leukaemia-associated immunophenotypes and molecular methods including quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing and next-generation sequencing. MRD results can be used to modify the intensity and duration of chemotherapy, or to use bone marrow transplant in first remission to prevent relapse.
Description of Medical ConditionAcute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) can occur at any age, but most cases arise in children younger than six years of age. Typical symptoms include fever, fatigue, bone or joint pain, bleeding, anorexia, abdominal pain, and hepatosplenomegaly. Despite most patients achieving a morphological remission, many will still have persistent MRD, which is the strongest predictor of relapse in ALL.
Reason for ApplicationNew MBS item
Medical Service TypeInvestigative technology
Previous Application Number/sNot Applicable
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PICO ConfirmationPICO Confirmation (PDF 2002 KB)
PICO Confirmation (Word 334 KB)