1752 – Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology testing in high-risk populations to determine access to high-resolution anoscopy and ablative treatment to prevent anal cancer

Page last updated: 31 May 2024

Application Detail

Description of Medical Service

This application proposes sampling of the anal canal for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and potentially also cytology in populations at high-risk for anal precursor lesions and anal cancer. High-risk populations include all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (both male and female), HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM), women diagnosed with HPV-related vulval precancerous lesions or cancer, and solid-organ (e.g. kidney) transplant recipients.

Individuals with high-risk anal HPV detected will be referred for diagnostic high-resolution anoscopy (HRA), depending in some cases on their cytology result. Biopsies for histological evaluation will be collected during HRA and ablative treatment will be recommended for those individuals with persistent HSIL.

Description of Medical Condition

Anal cancer, although relatively rare in Australia, has been rapidly rising in terms of incidence and mortality, with rates increasing over time in both men and women. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are the precursor of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). Like cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes approximately 90 per cent of SCCA cases. Due to the histological and biological similarities between cervical and anal cancer, HPV vaccination is expected to be the long-term solution to SCCA prevention.

Reason for Application

New MBS items (MSAC-MSAC Co-dependent submission)

Medical Service Type

Investigative and therapeutic technology

Previous Application Number/s

Not Applicable

Associated Documentation

Application Summary and PICO Set

Application Summary and PICO Set (PDF 1458 KB)

Application Summary and PICO Set (Word 997 KB)

Consultation Survey

Consultation Survey

PASC Consultation
PASC consultation closes Friday 12 July 2024. Any consultation received after this date will automatically be included in the MSAC consultation for this application.

MSAC Consultation
MSAC consultation TBA – please subscribe to the MSAC email bulletin to be notified when this application is scheduled for MSAC consideration. The bulletin will also advise the closing date for consultation input.

For further information please refer to PASC, ESC, MSAC Key Dates
For further information on the consultation process please refer to MSAC Consultation Process

PICO Confirmation


Assessment Report


Public Summary Document


Meetings for this Application


15–16 August 2024